History of Coffee
   The origin and centre of the genetic diversity of Coffea  arabica lays in the South-Western region of Ethiopia,  Kaffa  kingdom, Mankira kebele, Buni village  1,000 years ago.the ancient kingdom of  Kaffa is said to be birth  place of Coffea  arabica, in which the origin of the kingdom of Kaffa  can be traced back to 14th  century ( Bieber 1920; 1923; Bahru Zewde 2002).Legend has indicated  that a goat-herd tasted the plant when his goats began bouncing around in a cheerful state after munching on the berries.

   Coffee is described as buna in Amharic, native Ethiopian language, in which the name was derived from the name of buni village  in Decha district of kaffa zone,  where coffee was originated.  As the name of coffee derived from  Kaffa  the other countries  of the world  call coffee by their native languages ( French and Spanish call coffee café, the Italian caffee, the German Kaffee, Dutch koffie, Greek kafes and so on).

   There are some quotations from various writers that are the solid evidences supporting Kaffa as a home land of Coffea arabica (  Games Bruce,  1769-1772;  Bieber, 1906,1909,1920,1923;  Grul max, 1932;  Citadel Ethiopia, London;   Orient Amnon,  1969,1970; Lange w, 1982  and others).

  Forest Coffee and Market Potential

   Studies indicate that about 164,059 ha of natural forests are found in the altitudinal range of 1500-2000 masl, which is suitable for coffee. It is estimated that above 90,000 ha of the forest area is with wild coffee. Thus, there is a potential to produce more than 9,000 tones of marketable wild coffee per year. This, in turn, has a significant role to play in the conservation of  natural  forest recourses.
   At the end of the 19 th century, the kaffa kingdom was attacked by emperor  Menelik  II and his allies. When Menelik II finally manage to overthrow the Kaffa king after twelve years of wars in 1897,  the country was largely  depopulated, because 60% of the Kaffa people had been killed or displaced (Bieber 1923; Strenge 1956; Meyer 1968). The wars of 1897 eliminated the Coffee trade and led to an abandonment of Coffee cultivation (Di Fulvio and chapman, 1947).






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